From ancient civilizations to our modern-day backyards, barley has been an essential crop for both nutrition and land stewardship.

Simple to cultivate, barley brings a host of benefits ranging from soil improvement to sustainable crop rotation.

This guide seeks to help you understand how to grow and care for barley, ensuring a thriving yield that is both bountiful and gratifying.

Annual Vegetative Calendar for Barley

Barley, a versatile and hardy cereal grain, plays a crucial role in everything from animal fodder and bread to the production of beer and whiskey. Let’s dive into the annual vegetative calendar for barley, ensuring you know exactly what to do and when to do it, to harvest a bountiful crop.


MarchSoil PreparationTest soil for nutrients and pH. Amend as necessary to achieve a pH of 6.0-7.5. Prepare the land for sowing.
SowingBegin sowing early spring as soon as the soil is workable. Barley prefers cool temperatures for germination.
AprilFertilizationApply nitrogen-based fertilizer to support early growth, depending on soil test results.
Weed ControlStart early weed management to prevent competition for nutrients and water.
MayPest & Disease ManagementMonitor for pests and diseases. Apply control measures as necessary.


JuneIrrigationWater the crops if the weather is particularly dry, aiming for 1 inch of water per week.
Growth MonitoringMonitor growth and continue pest and disease management. Adjust fertilization if necessary.
JulyMonitoring Continue monitoring the crop, adjusting water and pest management strategies as needed.
AugustPre-HarvestPrepare for harvest. Barley is ready when grains are hard and the moisture content is below 20%.


SeptemberHarvestHarvest barley when it’s fully ripe and dry. Timing is crucial to prevent grain loss and quality reduction.
OctoberPost-Harvest ManagementProcess the harvested barley as required (e.g., drying, storage). Prepare the field for the next crop.
NovemberSoil MaintenanceConduct soil tests and begin fallow management or cover cropping to enhance soil health for the next season.


DecemberPlanningReview the past season and plan for the next year. Order seeds and supplies.
JanuaryEquipment MaintenanceService and repair planting and harvesting equipment. Prepare for early spring sowing.
FebruaryEducation & TrainingUse this quieter time for learning new farming techniques, attending workshops, or training staff.

Following this calendar will help ensure your barley crop is managed effectively throughout the year, leading to a successful harvest. Remember, the specific timing of these tasks can vary based on your geographic location and the local climate, so it’s important to adjust the schedule as needed to fit your conditions.

How to Grow Barley

Barley, one of the oldest cereal crops, provides a variety of benefits due to its adaptability to different climatic conditions.

From its origins in the Eastern Mediterranean, barley’s cultivation has spread worldwide, owing to its utility in food, brewing, and animal fodder.

Here are the steps to successfully grow barley:

  • Variety Selection: Start with selecting the right variety of barley suitable for your climate and needs. Barley is typically classified by rows: two, four, or six rows of grains on the head. Additionally, barley can be categorized as hulled or hulless, based on the seed covering, and the seed color can range from colorless, white, yellow, to blue.
  • Soil Preparation: Barley thrives in well-drained soil with a pH between 6.0 and 7.5. Soil preparation should include removing weeds and other debris, followed by tilling the soil to a depth of about 6 inches.
  • Planting: The timing for planting barley depends on the variety – spring or winter barley. Spring barley should be sown in early spring, while winter barley is typically planted in the fall. Sow the seeds about 1 to 2 inches deep and approximately 2 inches apart.
  • Watering and Fertilizing: Regular watering is important for barley, especially during dry periods. A balanced fertilizer can be applied at planting to provide essential nutrients for growth.
  • Harvesting: Barley is ready to harvest when the grains are dry and hard, typically about 40 to 50 days after planting for spring barley, and the following spring for winter barley.

Where to Grow Barley

Barley is versatile and can be grown in a wide range of climates, but certain conditions are more favorable for its cultivation.

It typically prefers cool, dry areas and is well-suited to regions with a temperate climate.

Here are some insights about where to grow barley:

  • Location: The United States, particularly Idaho, North Dakota, and Montana, are significant regions for barley cultivation, accounting for a large portion of the total barley production.
  • Climate: Barley is a cool season grass that can tolerate lower temperatures and less rainfall than other cereal grains. Winter barley requires exposure to cold temperatures to produce heads and grains, whereas spring barley does not have this requirement.
  • Soil: Barley prefers well-drained soil and can be grown in various soil types, including heavy clay, provided it has good drainage. It also tolerates slightly saline soils, which makes it suitable for coastal areas.
  • Field Rotation: Barley is an excellent crop for field rotation due to its ability to suppress weeds and control soil erosion. It can be used to revive overworked soil and improve its structure, particularly in times of drought.
  • Small-scale Cultivation: You don’t need acres of land to grow barley. It can also be planted in smaller gardens or even containers, making it a feasible choice for home gardeners.

When planning to grow barley, it’s important to consider your local climate, soil conditions, and the purpose of the crop, whether for food, brewing, or soil improvement.

With the right care and attention, you can enjoy a successful barley harvest and reap the many benefits this ancient grain offers.

How to Plant and Care for Barley

Barley is a versatile and hardy cereal grain that has been cultivated for over 10,000 years.

It thrives in a variety of climates and is used in a wide range of products, from food and beverages to animal feed.

Understanding how to properly plant and care for barley can lead to a successful harvest. This guide will provide you with the necessary steps and tips to grow and maintain a healthy barley crop.

How to Plant Barley

Before diving into the specifics, it’s important to understand that planting barley requires careful preparation and timing.

The process involves selecting the right variety of barley for your climate, preparing the soil, and sowing the seeds at the right time.

Let’s delve into the details.

  • Choose the Right Variety: There are two main types of barley, winter and spring barley. Winter barley is planted in the fall and harvested the following summer, while spring barley is planted in the spring and harvested in the fall. Your choice will depend on your local climate and the length of your growing season.
  • Prepare the Soil: Barley prefers well-drained soil with a pH between 6.0 and 7.5. Before planting, prepare the soil by removing any weeds and adding compost or a balanced fertilizer to enrich the soil.
  • Sow the Seeds: Barley seeds should be sown about 1-2 inches deep and 2-3 inches apart. They can be sown by hand or with a seed drill.
  • Watering and Care: After planting, water the seeds thoroughly. Barley requires regular watering, but avoid overwatering as this can lead to disease.

How to Care for Barley

Once your barley is planted, the next step is to ensure it receives the proper care.

This involves regular watering, monitoring for pests and diseases, and knowing when and how to harvest.

Here’s a detailed guide on how to care for your barley.

  • Watering: Barley needs regular watering, especially during dry periods. However, avoid overwatering as this can lead to diseases such as root rot.
  • Weed Control: Regular weeding is necessary to prevent competition for nutrients. Hand weeding or using a hoe can be effective for small areas, while larger fields may require the use of herbicides.
  • Pest and Disease Control: Monitor your crop for signs of pests or diseases. Common pests include aphids and armyworms, while diseases may include rust or smut. If detected, use appropriate pest control methods or fungicides.
  • Harvesting: Barley is ready to harvest when the grains are dry and hard, and the stalks have turned yellow. This is typically about 40-50 days after heading for spring barley, and slightly longer for winter barley. Harvest by cutting the stalks and then threshing to separate the grains.

Barley Pruning and Propagation

Barley, as a cereal grain, has unique growth characteristics that differ from many other plants.

While pruning is not typically associated with barley, understanding its growth stages can help optimize yield.

Similarly, propagation of barley is usually done through seeds, but understanding the process can ensure a successful crop.

How to Prune Barley

While traditional pruning methods may not apply to barley, managing its growth for optimal yield is crucial.

This involves understanding the growth stages of barley and knowing when to intervene.

Let’s explore this in more detail.

  • Understanding Barley Growth Stages: Barley goes through several growth stages – germination, tillering, stem elongation, heading, and ripening. Each stage has specific needs and potential issues to watch out for.
  • Tillering Stage: This is when the barley plant produces additional stems or ’tillers’. Not all tillers will produce a head of grain, and excessive tillering can lead to competition for resources. In some cases, reducing tiller numbers can help direct resources to the most productive tillers.
  • Disease Control: Diseases can affect the growth and yield of barley. Regularly inspect your crop for signs of disease and take appropriate action if needed. This could include removing affected plants or applying fungicides.
  • Harvesting: Proper timing of harvesting can also be considered a form of ‘pruning’. Harvest when the grains are dry and hard, and the stalks have turned yellow. This ensures the highest yield and best quality grain.

How to Propagate Barley

Propagation of barley is typically done through seeds. However, the process involves more than just sowing seeds in the ground.

Understanding the right conditions for germination and growth can ensure a successful crop.

Here’s a detailed guide on how to propagate barley.

  • Selecting Seeds: Choose high-quality seeds of the right variety for your climate and soil conditions. Seeds should be free from disease and have a high germination rate.
  • Preparing the Soil: Barley prefers well-drained soil with a pH between 6.0 and 7.5. Prepare the soil by removing any weeds and adding compost or a balanced fertilizer to enrich the soil.
  • Sowing the Seeds: Sow the seeds about 1-2 inches deep and 2-3 inches apart. The seeds should be covered with soil and watered thoroughly.
  • Germination and Growth: Barley seeds typically germinate within a week, and the young plants will begin to grow. Continue to care for the plants by watering regularly, controlling weeds, and monitoring for pests and diseases.

Barley Pests and Diseases

Barley, one of the world’s most important cereal grains, faces numerous threats from various pests and diseases.

These biological adversaries can drastically affect the growth, development, and yield of barley, leading to significant economic losses.

The key to mitigating these threats lies in understanding the nature of these pests and diseases, their life cycles, the damage they cause, and the most effective management and prevention strategies.

This section delves into the common pests and diseases that plague barley, providing a comprehensive understanding of their identification, impact, and control.

Common Pests and Diseases

Barley crops worldwide are susceptible to a wide array of pests and diseases.

These adversaries range from tiny insects and mites that directly damage the plant to microscopic fungi, bacteria, and viruses that cause disease.

Each pest and disease has unique characteristics, modes of action, and effects on the crop.

The following list provides a detailed overview of these threats, aiming to equip farmers and agricultural professionals with the knowledge to protect their barley crops effectively.


  • Aphids: Aphids are small, soft-bodied insects that feed on the sap of barley plants. They extract the plant’s nutrients, leading to symptoms such as yellowing, wilting, and reduced growth. In addition to the direct damage, aphids can also transmit diseases like the barley yellow dwarf virus. Effective management involves regular monitoring, use of resistant varieties, and biological control methods.
  • Cereal Leaf Beetle: The cereal leaf beetle is a significant pest of barley. Both larvae and adults feed on the leaves, scraping off the green tissue and leaving behind transparent strips. Severe infestations can lead to significant yield loss. Management strategies include crop rotation, use of natural enemies, and targeted pesticide applications.
  • Wireworms: Wireworms, the larvae of click beetles, are soil-dwelling pests that feed on barley seeds and roots. Their feeding can cause reduced stands and yield, as the damaged plants are unable to absorb nutrients and water effectively. Management of wireworms involves crop rotation, use of resistant varieties, and soil treatments.


  • Fusarium Head Blight (Scab): Fusarium head blight, also known as scab, is a fungal disease that affects the heads of the barley. The disease leads to shriveled and discolored kernels, reducing both yield and grain quality. The fungus can also produce mycotoxins, which can be harmful if consumed. Management strategies include crop rotation, use of resistant varieties, and fungicide applications.
  • Net Blotch: Net blotch is a fungal disease that causes dark brown, net-like spots on barley leaves. The disease reduces photosynthesis, impacting the plant’s growth and yield. Management involves using resistant varieties, crop rotation, and fungicide treatments.
  • Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus (BYDV): Transmitted by aphids, BYDV is a viral disease that causes yellowing and dwarfing of barley plants. Infected plants may also show leaf discoloration and stunted growth, leading to significant yield loss. Management involves controlling aphid populations, using resistant varieties, and planting at times that avoid peak aphid activity.

A comprehensive understanding of these pests and diseases is crucial for effective management and prevention.

Buying Barley Seeds

Purchasing barley seeds is a critical step in the process of cultivating this versatile cereal grain.

The quality of the seeds you buy directly influences the health and yield of your crop.

Therefore, it’s essential to make informed decisions when buying barley seeds.

This section provides comprehensive advice on purchasing barley seeds and suggests reliable online sources.

Advice On Buying Barley Seeds

When it comes to buying barley seeds, there are several factors to consider.

The choice of seeds can significantly impact the success of your barley cultivation.

Here are some key points to keep in mind when purchasing barley seeds:

  • Seed Quality: Always opt for high-quality seeds. Look for seeds that are clean, well-formed, and free from any signs of disease or damage.
  • Variety: Choose a variety that is suitable for your local climate and soil conditions. Different varieties of barley have different growth habits, disease resistance, and yield potential.
  • Disease Resistance: Opt for varieties that have good resistance to common barley diseases. This can help reduce the need for chemical treatments and increase the overall health and yield of your crop.
  • Germination Rate: Check the germination rate of the seeds. A high germination rate ensures that a good proportion of the seeds will sprout and grow into healthy plants.
  • Certified Seed: Whenever possible, buy certified seed. This guarantees that the seed has been tested for germination rate, purity, and disease, and meets the standards set by the certifying agency.

Where to Buy Barley Seeds Online

In today’s digital age, buying barley seeds online is a convenient option. Many reputable seed companies have online stores that offer a wide range of barley varieties. Here are some reliable online sources where you can buy barley seeds:

  • Amazon: Amazon offers a wide variety of barley seeds from different sellers. Be sure to check the reviews and ratings before making a purchase.
  • True Leaf Market: True Leaf Market is a reputable online store that offers a wide range of seeds, including several varieties of barley.
  • Johnny’s Selected Seeds: Johnny’s is a well-known company that offers high-quality seeds, including barley. They provide detailed information about each variety, including its growth habits and disease resistance.
  • Seed Savers Exchange: Seed Savers Exchange is a non-profit organization dedicated to preserving heirloom seed varieties. They offer a selection of barley seeds, including some rare and heirloom varieties.
  • eBay: eBay is another platform where you can find barley seeds from various sellers. As with Amazon, be sure to check the seller’s ratings and reviews before purchasing.

Remember to compare prices, check shipping policies, and read reviews before making your final decision.

Buying from a reputable source ensures you get high-quality seeds that will give you a successful barley crop.

Barley Varieties

Barley, one of the oldest and most versatile cereal grains, comes in a variety of types, each with its unique characteristics and uses.

These varieties differ in their growth habits, disease resistance, yield potential, and the quality of grain they produce.

The choice of barley variety to grow can significantly impact the success of your cultivation efforts.

This section provides an overview of some popular barley varieties that you might consider growing.

Barley Varieties to Grow

When it comes to growing barley, the choice of variety is crucial.

Different varieties are suited to different climates, soil types, and intended uses.

Here are some popular barley varieties that are known for their excellent performance and quality:

  • ‘Conlon’: ‘Conlon’ is a two-row barley variety known for its high yield and excellent disease resistance. It’s particularly well-suited for malting and brewing.
  • ‘Harrington’: ‘Harrington’ is another two-row barley that’s popular in the malting and brewing industry. It has a high yield and good disease resistance, and it’s known for producing a high-quality malt.
  • ‘Copeland’: ‘Copeland’ is a two-row malting barley that’s known for its excellent malt quality. It has a good yield and moderate disease resistance.
  • ‘CDC Austenson’: ‘CDC Austenson’ is a two-row feed barley that’s known for its high yield and excellent disease resistance. It’s well-suited for livestock feed.
  • ‘Hockett’: ‘Hockett’ is a two-row malting barley that’s known for its excellent malt quality and good yield. It’s also resistant to several common barley diseases.
  • ‘Morex’: ‘Morex’ is a six-row barley that’s used for malting, brewing, and animal feed. It has a high yield and good disease resistance.
  • ‘Robust’: ‘Robust’ is a six-row barley that’s popular in the malting and brewing industry. It has a high yield and is resistant to several common barley diseases.
  • ‘Tradition’: ‘Tradition’ is a six-row barley that’s known for its excellent malt quality. It has a good yield and is resistant to several common barley diseases.

Remember, the best barley variety for you will depend on your local climate and soil conditions, as well as your intended use for the barley.

Always choose a variety that’s well-suited to your specific circumstances to ensure a successful harvest.


What type of soil is best for Barley?

Barley grows best in well-drained soil with a pH between 6.0 and 7.5. It prefers a soil that is rich in organic matter, such as compost or manure. Barley can grow in a wide range of soil types, including sandy, loamy, or clay soils. However, poorly-drained soils can cause root rot, so it’s important to ensure that the soil drains well. If the soil is heavy or compacted, you can improve drainage by adding organic matter to the planting area.

When should I plant Barley?

Barley can be planted in the fall or spring, depending on the variety and climate. Fall planting is typically done in September or October, while spring planting is done in March or April. Choose a location that receives full sun exposure for optimal growth. Barley requires a cool and moist climate to grow properly.

How often should I water my Barley?

Barley requires regular watering to maintain moist soil. Water the plant deeply once or twice a week, especially during dry periods. However, be careful not to overwater, as barley can be sensitive to waterlogged conditions. Allow the soil to dry out slightly between waterings to prevent root rot. Adjust the watering frequency based on the weather and soil moisture levels.

Do Barley plants require fertilization?

Barley requires regular fertilization to promote healthy growth and yield. A balanced fertilizer with a ratio of 10-10-10 or 16-16-16 is suitable for barley. Apply the fertilizer at the time of planting and again during the growing season. Organic fertilizers, such as compost or aged manure, can also be used to provide additional nutrients.

How do I plant Barley?

When planting Barley, choose a location that receives full sun exposure. Sow the seeds to a depth of 1-2 inches, depending on the soil type. Space the seeds 1-2 inches apart in rows that are 6-8 inches apart. Water the seeds immediately after planting to provide moisture to the soil. Mulching around the plants can help retain moisture and suppress weeds.

How much sunlight does Barley need?

Barley requires full sun exposure to grow and develop properly. It requires at least six hours of direct sunlight per day to thrive. Planting it in a location with full sun exposure will ensure optimal growth and yield.

Are there different varieties of Barley?

Yes, there are many different varieties of Barley available, each with its own unique characteristics, growth habits, and uses. Some popular varieties include Hulless Barley, Two-Row Barley, and Six-Row Barley. Choose a variety that suits your preferences and growing conditions.

Are there any pests or diseases that affect Barley?

Barley is susceptible to a range of pests and diseases, including aphids, mites, and powdery mildew. Regularly inspect the plant for any signs of infestation or disease, and take appropriate measures, such as using organic insecticides or fungicides, if necessary. Good air circulation and proper watering practices can help prevent fungal diseases.

How do I care for Barley after harvesting?

After harvesting, you can prune the Barley to maintain its shape and encourage new growth. Cut back the stem to about 6 inches above the ground. This will help rejuvenate the plant and promote vigorous growth and abundant yield in the following season. Regular deadheading of spent flowers can also encourage continuous yield.

Can Barley be grown as a cover crop?

Yes, Barley can be grown as a cover crop, a crop grown specifically to maintain cropland soil quality, fertility, and prevent soil erosion. Barley is an excellent cover crop because it grows quickly and produces a lot of biomass. It can be grown in the fall or spring and is typically tilled into the soil before planting the next crop. Barley cover crops can improve soil structure, increase soil organic matter, and reduce soil erosion.

Additional Resources

Here are some additional resources that provide information on how to grow and care for barley: