Rice, also known as Oryza sativa, is a staple food for more than half of the world’s population, and it’s also a fascinating crop to grow.

Whether you’re interested in self-sufficiency, experimenting with different crops, or simply enjoy the beauty of rice plants, growing rice can be a rewarding experience.

It’s important to note that rice cultivation requires specific conditions and a good deal of patience.

This guide will provide you with comprehensive instructions on how to grow and care for rice, ensuring a successful harvest.

Annual Vegetative Calendar for Rice

Rice, a staple food crop grown in various parts of the world, requires specific conditions and care throughout its growth cycle. Here’s an annual vegetative calendar tailored for rice cultivation.


MarchLand PreparationPrepare the land for planting. This includes plowing and harrowing to create a fine, tilth seedbed.
Water ManagementBegin setting up irrigation systems to ensure fields can be flooded or maintain adequate moisture.
AprilSowingDirect seed sowing in warmer regions or start seedlings in nursery beds for transplanting.
FertilizationApply the first dose of fertilizer, typically high in nitrogen, to support initial growth.
MayTransplantingFor regions starting seedlings in nurseries, transplant them into the main field.


JuneWater ManagementMaintain flooded conditions or consistent moisture levels to support growth.
JulyWeed ControlManage weeds through manual removal or water management practices.
AugustPest & Disease MonitoringMonitor for pests and diseases, applying appropriate control measures as needed.


SeptemberFertilizationApply a second dose of fertilizer to support heading and grain filling, if necessary.
OctoberMonitoringContinue to monitor for pests and diseases, and manage water levels as the crop matures.
NovemberHarvestBegin harvesting rice as grains mature and reach the desired moisture content.


DecemberPost-Harvest ManagementProcess harvested rice for storage or sale. Dry grains to the appropriate moisture level.
JanuaryLand RestAllow fields to rest or plant cover crops to enhance soil fertility.
FebruaryPlanningPlan for the next planting season. This includes crop rotation planning and ordering seeds.

Caring for rice involves a mix of regular maintenance tasks such as water management, fertilizing, and pest control, along with seasonal adjustments in care to ensure a successful harvest. By following this vegetative calendar, you can optimize rice production, whether for personal consumption or commercial farming.

Adjust care routines as needed based on your local climate conditions, rice variety, and specific agricultural practices.

How to Grow Rice

Growing rice involves understanding its specific needs and providing the right conditions.

From choosing the right variety to understanding the optimal growing conditions, each step is crucial to ensure a successful harvest.

This section will provide you with a detailed guide on how to grow rice.

  • Choose the Right Variety: There are several varieties of rice, each with its own growth requirements and characteristics. Some popular choices include Jasmine, Basmati, and Arborio.
  • Prepare the Soil: Rice prefers loamy or clay soil that can retain water. Amend your soil with organic matter to improve its texture and fertility.
  • Plant the Rice: Soak rice seeds in water for 36 hours and allow them to germinate for another 36 hours. Then, plant the germinated seeds in a flooded field or container.
  • Care for the Plants: Maintain a water depth of about 4 inches until the plants are well established. Then, allow the field to dry out gradually as the plants mature.
  • Harvest the Rice: Rice is ready to harvest when the grains have turned golden brown. Cut the stalks and allow them to dry before threshing to separate the grains from the stalks.

Where to Grow Rice

The location where you choose to grow your rice can greatly impact its growth and yield.

Rice needs a good amount of sunlight and a consistent water source to thrive.

This section will guide you on the best places to grow rice.

  • In a Field: If you have a field that can be flooded and drained, this is an ideal place to grow rice. Ensure the area gets at least 6 hours of sunlight each day.
  • In a Pond or Wetland: Rice can be grown in a pond or wetland environment. The water should be shallow enough to allow the rice plants to emerge above the surface.
  • In Containers: If you’re short on space, rice can be grown in large containers. Choose a deep container with no drainage holes and fill it with high-quality potting soil.
  • In a Rice Paddy: This is the traditional method of growing rice and is still used in many parts of the world. A rice paddy is a leveled field that can be flooded and drained as needed.

Remember, no matter where you choose to grow your rice, ensure they have enough water, sunlight, and nutrient-rich soil to thrive.

How to Plant and Care for Rice

Rice plants are not only a staple food source for many cultures but also a fascinating plant to grow in your own backyard.

Cultivating rice requires specific care and attention to ensure optimal growth and a bountiful harvest. I

Here, we will cover everything you need to know about planting and caring for rice plants.

How to Plant Rice

Planting rice requires careful consideration of various factors to create an ideal growing environment.

Here are the steps to plant rice plants:

  1. Purchase rice seeds: Obtain rice seeds from a reputable gardening or farmers supply store. There are different types of rice to choose from, including long-grain, medium-grain, and short-grain varieties.
  2. Prepare the planting area: Rice plants thrive in wet conditions, so choose a location with good water drainage or create a flooded environment. Consider using a garden bed or buckets filled with the right amount of soil.
  3. Plant the seeds: Sow the rice seeds in the prepared area. Make sure to space them appropriately, allowing room for growth. It is recommended to follow the instructions provided on the seed packet for specific planting depths and spacing.
  4. Provide adequate water: Rice plants require standing puddles of water or swamp-like conditions to thrive. Maintain a consistent level of water to keep the soil moist. Proper irrigation or flooding techniques may be necessary to ensure optimal growth.
  5. Monitor for weeds: Regularly check the planting area for weed growth. Remove any weeds promptly to prevent them from competing with the rice plants for nutrients and resources.
  6. Fertilize as needed: Depending on the soil quality, you may need to supplement with fertilizers. Consult with a local agriculture field officer or gardening expert to determine the appropriate fertilization schedule and products for your rice plants.
  7. Watch for pests and diseases: Keep an eye out for common rice pests and diseases such as rice blast, sheath blight, or rice hispa. Implement appropriate pest management practices and consult with experts if necessary.
  8. Harvest and mill the crop: Once the rice grains have developed and matured, the water in which they grow must drain. Harvest the crop by cutting the rice stalks and allowing them to dry. Afterward, remove the grains from the stalks and mill them to prepare for consumption.

How to Care for Rice Plants

Caring for rice plants involves ongoing maintenance to ensure their health and productivity.

Here are essential care tips for rice plants:

  • Watering: Rice plants require consistent moisture, so regular irrigation is crucial. Maintain a consistent level of water to keep the soil moist but avoid waterlogging, which can lead to root rot. Adjust watering frequency based on environmental conditions and the stage of plant growth.
  • Fertilization: Rice plants benefit from regular fertilization to ensure optimal growth and yield. Apply a balanced fertilizer with the appropriate ratios of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. Follow recommended dosage instructions and consider using organic fertilizers for sustainable cultivation.
  • Weed control: Prevent weed growth by regularly removing any unwanted plants from the rice fields. Weeds can compete with rice plants for nutrients and hinder their growth. Hand weeding or using appropriate herbicides can help keep the fields weed-free.
  • Pest and disease management: Monitor rice plants for common pests and diseases such as rats, insects, fungal infections, or viral diseases. Implement integrated pest management techniques, including biological controls, cultural practices, and, if necessary, judicious use of pesticides to manage pest and disease issues.
  • Pruning: Rice plants generally do not require extensive pruning. However, removing any damaged or diseased parts can promote healthier growth and prevent the spread of diseases.
  • Crop rotation: Consider rotating rice crops with other suitable crops to break pest and disease cycles, improve soil fertility, and maintain overall field health.
  • Harvesting: Time the harvest when the rice grains have fully matured. Cut the stalks close to the ground and allow them to dry. Thresh the rice to separate the grains from the stalks, and then mill the grains to remove the inedible hulls.
  • Storage: Store harvested rice in a cool, dry place to prevent moisture absorption and protect it from pests. Proper storage conditions can help maintain the quality and longevity of the rice.

By following these planting and care guidelines, you can cultivate thriving rice plants and enjoy the satisfaction of growing your own rice.

Remember to adapt your approach based on local climate, soil conditions, and rice variety for the best results.

Rice Plants Pruning and Propagation

Pruning and propagation are crucial aspects of rice plant care to ensure healthy growth and a bountiful harvest.

Pruning helps maintain the plant’s shape, remove damaged or diseased parts, and promote better air circulation.

On the other hand, propagation allows you to expand your rice plant collection by creating new plants from existing ones.

Let’s explore the techniques for pruning and propagating rice plants:

How to Prune Rice Plants

Pruning rice plants is essential for their overall health and productivity.

Here are the steps to follow when pruning rice plants:

  • Timing: Prune rice plants during their dormant period or in early spring before new growth begins.
  • Tools: Prepare a sharp pair of pruning shears or scissors for making clean cuts.
  • Remove dead or damaged parts: Start by inspecting the rice plant and removing any dead or diseased stems, leaves, or branches. This will prevent the spread of diseases and improve the plant’s appearance.
  • Shape the plant: Trim back overgrown or unruly branches to maintain a neat and compact shape. Aim for a balanced and symmetrical appearance.
  • Improve air circulation: Thin out dense areas of foliage to allow better airflow and reduce the risk of fungal diseases. Remove any crowded or crossing branches.
  • Prune for rejuvenation: If your rice plant becomes leggy or loses its vigor, consider more drastic pruning techniques, such as cutting the plant back to its main stem. This can encourage new growth and rejuvenate the plant.
  • Dispose of pruned material: Gather and discard the pruned plant material properly to prevent the spread of pests or diseases.

How to Propagate Rice Plants

Propagating rice plants allows you to create new plants from existing ones.

Here are some methods for propagating rice plants:

  • Seeds: Rice plants can be propagated from seeds. Purchase rice seeds from a reputable supplier or collect mature seeds from your existing plants. Sow the seeds in well-prepared soil or seed trays, ensuring they are adequately watered and receive sufficient sunlight.
  • Division: Another method is to divide mature rice plants. Carefully dig up the plant and separate the clumps into smaller sections, making sure each division has healthy roots and shoots. Replant the divisions in prepared soil, keeping them well-watered until they establish.
  • Stem cuttings: You can also propagate rice plants from stem cuttings. Select a healthy stem and cut it just below a node. Remove the lower leaves and plant the cutting in a container filled with moist potting soil. Keep the soil consistently moist and provide indirect light until roots develop.
  • Tissue culture: Tissue culture is a more advanced propagation technique used in commercial settings. It involves growing rice plant cells in a controlled laboratory environment to produce disease-free plantlets.

Propagation allows you to expand your rice plant collection or share plants with others.

Remember to provide the new plants with proper care, including suitable soil, water, and light conditions, to ensure their successful establishment and growth.

By practicing proper pruning and propagation techniques, you can maintain the health and vitality of your rice plants while enjoying the satisfaction of growing them yourself.

Rice Plants Pests and Diseases

Rice plants are susceptible to various pests and diseases that can significantly impact their health and productivity.

Managing these pests and diseases is crucial to ensure a successful rice crop.

Here is an overview of common pests and diseases that affect rice plants:

Common Pests and Diseases

Rice plants are prone to attack by pests and diseases, which can cause substantial damage if not properly controlled.

Timely diagnosis and effective management strategies are essential for mitigating losses.

Here are some of the most prevalent pests and diseases of rice:


  • Planthoppers and Leafhoppers: These insects, such as Delphacidae and Cicadellidae, can attack different parts of the rice plant, resulting in dark brown discoloration or burn-like appearance on stems and leaves.
  • Defoliators: Various insects from the Lepidoptera, Orthoptera, and Coleoptera families feed on rice leaves, causing defoliation.
  • Insects that attack the grains: Rice stink bugs, particularly Oebalus pugnax, target immature plants and feed on the grains, leading to yield reduction.


  • Bacterial blight: Caused by Xanthomonas oryzae, this disease manifests as yellowing of leaves and can occur in both temperate and tropical climates with high humidity.
  • Bacterial leaf streak: Another bacterial disease that causes browning and drying of leaves, potentially resulting in reduced grain weight.
  • Bakanae: This seedborne fungal disease infects rice plants through the roots or crowns and grows systemically within the plant.
  • Blast (leaf and collar): Leaf blast can be lethal to rice plants at the seedling stage, leading to yield losses. Collar blast affects the nodes and neck, causing poor grain development.
  • Brown spot: A fungal disease characterized by large spots on leaves, which can eventually kill the entire leaf.
  • False smut: This disease causes chalkiness of grains and reduces both grain weight and seed germination.
  • Leaf Scald: A fungal disease that gives leaves a scalded appearance.
  • Narrow brown spot: A fungal disease that causes small, narrow lesions on leaves.

These are just a few examples of the pests and diseases that rice plants can encounter.

It’s important for rice growers to monitor their crops regularly, practice good cultural management techniques, and employ appropriate pest and disease control measures to minimize damage and maximize yield.

Remember that prevention and early intervention are key to effectively managing pests and diseases in rice plants.

Seek advice from agricultural professionals or utilize resources like the Rice Doctor for accurate diagnosis and guidance on pest and disease management.

Buying Rice Seeds

Gardening enthusiasts and farmers alike may be interested in purchasing rice plant seeds to grow their own rice crops.

Whether you’re aiming to cultivate rice for food production or simply as an engaging gardening project, obtaining the right seeds is crucial.

Here’s some advice on buying rice plant seeds and where to find them online:

Advice On Buying Rice Seeds

When looking to buy rice plant seeds, there are several options available. You can consider the following:

  • Purchase from Gardening or Farmer’s Supply Stores: Visit your local gardening or farmer’s supply store, where you can find a variety of rice seeds suitable for planting. Reputable supply stores can offer guidance and assistance in choosing the right type of rice seeds for your needs. They typically stock a selection of long-grain, medium-grain, and short-grain rice seeds, each with its own characteristics in terms of texture and cooking properties.
  • Seek Help from Local Agriculture Field Officer: Consult with your local agriculture field officer or agricultural extension office. They can provide valuable information on where to purchase rice plant seeds and offer guidance on selecting the appropriate varieties based on your specific location and climate conditions.
  • Online Marketplaces: Several online marketplaces offer rice plant seeds for purchase. These platforms provide a convenient way to explore a wide range of options, read customer reviews, and compare prices. Some popular online platforms include Amazon, Shopee, and specialty seed suppliers.

Where to Buy Rice Seeds Online

If you prefer the convenience of shopping online, there are several websites where you can find rice seeds.

Here are some recommended options:

  1. Amazon: Amazon offers a variety of rice seeds from different sellers. You can browse through their selection and read customer reviews to make an informed decision. Look for seeds labeled as “Rice Plant Seeds” or search for specific rice varieties such as long-grain, medium-grain, or short-grain.
  2. Shopee: Shopee is another online marketplace that provides a platform for sellers to offer rice seeds. Explore the listings on Shopee to find a suitable supplier and check the reviews and ratings to ensure a reliable purchase.
  3. Specialty Seed Suppliers: Some specialized seed suppliers focus on providing high-quality rice seeds. These suppliers often have a wide range of rice varieties available, including heirloom and organic options. Consider searching for “rice plant seeds” on agricultural seed supplier websites to find reputable sources.

Remember to choose seeds that are appropriate for your specific growing conditions, such as the climate and soil type in your area.

Additionally, it’s advisable to follow the recommended planting and care instructions for the specific rice variety you choose to ensure successful cultivation.

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Buying Rice Plants

Whether you’re a small-scale home gardener or a large-scale farmer, buying rice plants requires careful consideration.

Here, we will provide you with a few tips on purchasing rice plants, from understanding the best varieties to finding the right suppliers.

Let’s delve into the world of rice cultivation and make your buying process a breeze.

Advice On Buying Rice Plants

When it comes to buying rice plants, there’s more to consider than just the price.

The variety, the growing conditions, and the supplier’s reliability all play crucial roles.

This section will provide you with a detailed guide on what to look out for when buying rice plants.

  • Variety: There are over 40,000 varieties of rice plants worldwide. Choose a variety that suits your local climate and soil conditions.
  • Growing Conditions: Rice plants generally require a lot of water and prefer a warm climate. Ensure you have the right conditions before investing in rice plants.
  • Supplier’s Reliability: Check the supplier’s reputation. Look for reviews or ask for recommendations from other farmers.
  • Pest Resistance: Some varieties are more resistant to pests and diseases. Consider this factor when choosing your rice plants.
  • Yield: The yield of the rice plant is another important factor. Some varieties produce more grains than others.

Where to Buy Rice Plants Online

In the digital age, buying rice plants has never been easier.

Numerous online platforms offer a variety of rice plants for sale, catering to different needs and preferences.

This section will guide you through some of the best places to buy rice plants online.

  • E-commerce Platforms: Platforms like Amazon and eBay sell rice plants. Make sure to check the seller’s ratings and reviews before making a purchase.
  • Direct From Farms: Some farms have their own websites where they sell rice plants directly to customers. This can be a good option if you want to support local agriculture.
  • Rice Seeds – Oryza Sativa: This is a packet of rice seeds from the Oryza Sativa species. You can grow your own rice plants from these seeds.
  • Rice Plant Seeds: Another option for rice seeds. These are also from the Oryza Sativa species.
  • Rice Seeds for Planting: These are rice seeds specifically for planting. They are also from the Oryza Sativa species.

Please note that availability may vary based on your location.

Also, remember to check the seller’s reviews and ratings before making a purchase.

Rice Plants Varieties

Rice, a staple food for a large portion of the world’s population, is not just a single type of plant.

It’s a symphony of diversity, with each variety playing its own unique part.

The world of rice is vast and varied, with each type having its own unique characteristics, from the length and color of the grain to its aroma and growing method.

Rice Plants Varieties to Grow

When it comes to growing rice, the choice of variety is crucial.

The right variety can make all the difference in terms of yield, disease resistance, and market price.

So, let’s delve into the world of rice varieties and explore some of the most popular and widely grown types.

  • Asian Rice (Oryza sativa): This is the most widely known and grown rice, with over 40,000 varieties. It has two major subspecies, indica and japonica. Indica varieties are usually long-grain types like Basmati and Jasmine, known for their fragrance and the fact that they remain separate when cooked. Japonica varieties are often short to medium in grain length, like Arborio and Sushi rice, and tend to be stickier when cooked.
  • African Rice (Oryza glaberrima): This variety is grown mainly in West Africa. It’s known for its ability to withstand harsher conditions than Asian rice, including infertile soils, drought, and deep water.
  • Wild Rice (genus Zizania): Despite its name, wild rice is not directly related to the other rice varieties. It’s native to North America and is harvested from natural wetlands. It has a chewy outer sheath with a tender inner grain and a slightly vegetal flavor.
  • Oryza sativa L.: This is a semi-aquatic annual grass. It’s differentiated into three sub-species based on geographical distribution, namely indica, japonica, and javanica. The plant is native to semi-aquatic conditions, where the presence of inter-organ aerenchyma facilitates the exchange of respiratory gases in submerged plant parts.
  • Oryza glaberrima Steud.: This is another cultivated species with about 20 wild species. It belongs to the AA diploid genome with 24 chromosomes.
  • Arborio Rice: A medium grain rice that is wider in size and has a characteristic white dot at the center of the grain. It is named after the town of Arborio in the Po Valley of Italy, where it is grown. It has a slightly chewy and sticky consistency and develops a creamy texture when cooked. It is commonly used in risotto, rice pudding, and soup.
  • Basmati Rice: When cooked, basmati rice grains are long, dry, and separate. They impart a pleasant, nutty aroma and flavor in any dish. It is common in Indian and Asian cuisine, but it can be used in a variety of flavorful recipes such as dal, curry, pilafs, and saffron rice.
  • Black Rice: Also known as forbidden rice, it gets its color from anthocyanins, the same antioxidant that’s found in blueberries and blackberries. Black rice features a mildly nutty, earthy flavor and has long been used in Chinese cuisine for its health-promoting properties. It is used in bowls, rice pudding, soups, rice salads, and Chinese black rice cake.
  • Bomba Rice: A short grain rice that is cultivated in the Valencia region of Spain. It has a firm texture that lends itself well to Spanish paella, as it needs more liquid to absorb when cooking than other rice varieties. It is used in paella, Mediterranean dishes, and risotto.
  • Brown Rice: A whole grain that has its bran and germ layers still intact, which gives the rice its characteristic tan color. It has a firmer texture and nuttier flavor than white rice, and it provides more fiber, vitamins, and minerals per serving. Brown rice can be substituted in any recipe that calls for white rice to increase its nutritional content. It is used in stuffing, bowls, casseroles, stir fries, and rice pilaf.
  • Jasmine Rice: Cultivated in Thailand, jasmine rice will bring an exotic flair and flavorful accent to any dish. It develops a pleasant floral aroma and a moist, soft texture when cooked. Use it when making a variety of traditional Asian dishes, including curries and stir-frys.
  • Long Grain White Rice: The most common rice used in traditional American recipes, and it’s also popular in Asian and Mexican cuisine. Compared to brown rice, it has a mild flavor and a lighter, fluffier texture when cooked. It is used in stuffing, bowls, casseroles, stir-fry dishes, and rice pilaf.
  • Parboiled Rice: Rice that has been partially boiled in its inedible outer husk. This process improves the texture of the rice, cuts down on cooking time, and saves some of the original vitamins and minerals found in the rice. It is used in stuffing, bowls, casseroles, stir fries, and rice pilaf.
  • Sticky Rice: Also known as glutinous rice or sweet rice, is a long grain white rice that has a low amylose starch content, which causes the rice to have an extremely sticky texture when steamed. It is used in dumplings, desserts, rice balls, and stuffing.
  • Sushi Rice: Technically short-grain white or brown rice that has a soft, tender, and very sticky texture. Sushi rice is made by combining short-grain white or brown rice with sugar, salt, and vinegar. It is used in sushi, rice balls, poke bowls, and sushi burritos.

Remember, the best rice variety to grow depends on your local conditions and the market demand.

So, before you plant, do your research and choose wisely!


What is rice?

Rice is a type of grain that is commonly used as a staple food in many cultures around the world. It is a cereal grain that is grown in warm, wet conditions and is known for its versatility and nutritional value.

What kind of soil does rice prefer?

Rice prefers well-draining soil that is rich in organic matter. It can tolerate a range of soil types, but it does best in soil that is slightly acidic with a pH between 6.0 and 7.0. Adding organic matter, such as compost or manure, can improve the soil’s texture and fertility.

What is the ideal sunlight for growing rice?

Rice thrives in eight or more hours of direct sunlight a day. Plant it in full sun, away from trees or buildings which can cast shade. Rice can also be grown indoors, under lights if necessary.

When is the best time to plant rice?

Rice should be planted in the spring after the soil has warmed to at least 60 degrees Fahrenheit. It can be grown from seed or propagated from cuttings. Rice is relatively easy to grow and can be grown indoors or outdoors.

How much space does rice need?

Rice should be spaced about 6 inches apart, as it can grow quite large. Proper spacing allows for good air circulation and prevents overcrowding, which can lead to disease and pest problems.

How often should I water my rice plants?

Rice requires a lot of water, especially during the growing season, so make sure to keep the soil consistently moist. Keep the water level at 2 inches or so above the dirt. When the rice plants are 5-6 inches tall, increase the water depth to 4 inches. Then, allow the water level to lower on its own over a period of time. Ideally, by the time you harvest them, the plants should be dry.

What are some common problems when growing rice?

Common problems when growing rice include pests such as rodents and diseases such as bacterial blight. Rodents can be controlled with traps or repellents, while bacterial blight can be managed by improving air circulation and avoiding overhead watering. Rice is also susceptible to lodging, which is when the plants fall over due to strong winds or heavy rain. Proper spacing and staking can help prevent lodging.

Can I grow rice in containers?

Yes, rice can be grown in containers. Choose a well-draining, porous container with a diameter of at least 6 inches, and fill it with potting soil. The soil surface should be one inch below the rim of the container. Add water up to 2 inches over the soil level. Add a handful of the long grain rice to the container. The rice will sink to the soil. Keep the container in a warm, sunny area and move it to a warm place at night. Rice can also be grown in traditional containers with drainage holes or solid vessels, with no holes, because rice will thrive in wetness.

How can I promote healthy growth and yield in my rice plants?

To promote healthy growth, fertilize rice with a balanced organic fertilizer every 4-6 weeks during the growing season. Mulch around the base of the plants to conserve moisture and suppress weeds. Harvest the rice when the grains are fully mature and the stalks have turned yellow or brown. After harvesting, the rice must be dried and milled before it can be eaten.

What are some tips for growing rice?

Some tips for growing rice include planting it in well-draining soil, providing ample sunlight, spacing the plants properly, watering regularly, and addressing pest and disease issues promptly. Proper spacing and staking can help prevent lodging. Rice is a versatile grain that can be used in many different dishes and is relatively easy to care for.

Additional Resources

Here are some additional resources that provide valuable information on how to grow and care for rice:

We hope that these resources provide you with helpful guidance and tips for successfully growing and caring for rice.